Water availability

UPM’s most water-intensive production plants are located in areas where there is sufficient water available.


The freshwater used in UPM’s direct mill operations is water from rivers and lakes or groundwater taken from wells.

UPM’s most water-intensive production plants are located in areas where there is sufficient water available. The mill processes are within the permit limits for water uptake and effluent discharge set locally. This also applies to mills that use groundwater.

UPM has mapped all its pulp and paper mills on the Water Stress Index (WSI) maps (Pfister et. al 2009). A water stress indicator of 0 means no water stress (blue on the map) and an indicator of 1 means extreme water stress (red on the map).

The UPM Chapelle mill, located near Paris, is the only UPM mill that has some form of water stress, although this is only at a medium level (WSI 0.38). However, withdrawal is minimal (0.1%) compared with the typical flow of 450 m3/s of the River Seine, and thus the mill operations do not have an adverse effect on water availability or water levels.

All other UPM mills are consuming water in areas with no water stress (WSI <0.1). For now, only UPM sites that have large volumes of water withdrawal are mapped.


Legend to the maps:

Red = extreme water scarcity; Orange = water stress;Yellow = insufficient water;Turquoise = relatively sufficient; Light blue = sufficient; Blue = plentiful supplies; Dark blue = water abundant


UPM in China



UPM in Changsu, UPM



UPM in Central Europe



UPM Chapelle & Shutton



UPM in Finland



UPM in North America



UPM in Uruguay