​Carbon footprint - a tool for evaluating the impact of products and activities on climate change

A carbon footprint is a method used to measure and communicate the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted both directly and indirectly in the production and delivery of goods and services. Raw materials, energy consumed and transportation are the main elements used to calculate the carbon footprint of a product.

Calculating carbon footprints – a complex issue where system boundaries are crucial

Standard global methods and rules for calculating carbon footprints are currently under development. It is crucial to pay attention to the scope and assumptions behind any claims relating to the carbon footprint of a company or product. Comparing the carbon footprint of different companies or products from different producers is difficult due to the varying scopes and methods used.

UPM uses two levels of carbon accounting - corporate level and product level. The corporate-level carbon footprint indicates the impact of UPM's activities as a whole.

The product-level carbon footprint provides information on the impact of certain products. For example, it can be used by customers to support efforts related to reducing climate change and carbon consumption.

Corporate level carbon footprint calculations

Since 2007, UPM has calculated its carbon footprint on a corporate level, using the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol Initiative, which is the most widely used tool.

In 2012 we developed our inventory of indirect emissions so that the reporting of our Scope 3 emissions is based on the GHG Protocol Scope 3 Standard (Corporate Value Chain Accounting and Reporting Standard).

In its calculations​, UPM includes emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxides (N2O) from the following components (see table below):

​Carbon footprint ​

Scope 1
  • ​Direct emissions from production
Scope 2
  • Purchased electricity
Scope 3 *)

 

  • ​Purchased goods and services
  • Production of fuels
  • Transportation of raw materials and distribution of products
  • Waste generated in operations
  • Business travel
  • Processing of sold products
  • End-of-life treatment of sold products
​ ​*) More detailed information about our Scope 3 reporting is available in the PDF-document here.)


Product level carbon footprint calculations

At product level, UPM's carbon footprint calculations are based on the ten elements of the Carbon Footprint Framework for Paper and Board Products developed by CEPI (Confederation of European Paper Industries).

Product Carbon Footprint declarations are available as a supplement to other product-related environmental declarations.

The ten elements of the CEPI Framework are:

  1. Carbon sequestration in the forest
  2. Carbon stored in the product
  3. GHG emissions from pulp and paper production
  4. GHG emissions associated with producing fresh or recovered fibre
  5. GHG emissions associated with producing other raw material
  6. GHG emissions associated with purchased electricity and steam
  7. Transport-related GHG emissions
  8. GHG emissions attributable to product use (e.g. printing)
  9. GHG emissions attributable to end-of-life-management of product
  10. Avoided emissions